Sunday, February 26, 2012

Why 40 Days?

Two posts back, I gave a chart, counting the 40 days of Lent. Today, I came across an article by Sandro Magister that included one of the pope's recent talks. In it, the Pope Benedict XVI explains the many times in the Bible when 40 days or 40 years were mentioned. Here is the text of the pope's speech:











"THE PILGRIM CHURCH IN THE DESERT OF THE WORLD..."

by Benedict XVI
[Vatican Radio translation]


Dear brothers and sisters, in this Catechesis I would like to dwell briefly on the season of Lent. It is a journey of forty days that will lead us to the Paschal Triduum, memorial of the passion, death and resurrection of the Lord, the heart of the mystery of our salvation.

In the early centuries of the Church this was the time when those who had heard and accepted the message of Christ began, step by step, their journey of faith and conversion to receive the sacrament of baptism. It was a drawing close to the living God and an initiation of the faith to be gradually accomplished, through an inner change in the catechumens, that is, those who wished to become Christians and thus be incorporated into Christ and the Church.

Subsequently, penitents, and then all the faithful were invited to experience this journey of spiritual renewal, to conform themselves and their lives to that of Christ.

The participation of the whole community in the different steps of the Lenten path emphasizes an important dimension of Christian spirituality: redemption is not available to only a few, but to all, through the death and resurrection of Christ. Therefore, those who follow a journey of faith as catechumens to receive baptism, those who had strayed from God and the community of faith and seek reconciliation and those who lived their faith in full communion with the Church, together knew that the period before Easter is a period of metanoia, that is, of inner change, of repentance, the period that identifies our human life and our entire history as a process of conversion that is set in motion now in order to meet the Lord at the end of time.

In an expression that has become typical in the Liturgy, the Church calls the period in which we are now entering "Quadragesima," in short a period of forty days and, with a clear reference to Sacred Scripture, it introduces us to a specific spiritual context.

Forty is in fact the symbolic number in which salient moments of the experience of faith of the People of God are expressed. A figure that expresses the time of waiting, purification, return to the Lord, the awareness that God is faithful to his promises.

This number does not represent an exact chronological time, divided by the sum of the days. Rather it indicates a patient perseverance, a long trial, a sufficient period to see the works of God, a time within which we must make up our minds and to decide to accept our own responsibilities without additional references. It is the time for mature decisions.

The number forty first appears in the story of Noah. This just man because of the flood spends forty days and forty nights in the ark, along with his family and animals that God had told him to bring. He waits for another forty days, after the flood, before finding land, saved from destruction (Gen 7,4.12, 8.6).

Then, the next stop, Moses on Mount Sinai, in the presence of the Lord, for forty days and forty nights to receive the Law. He fasts throughout this period (Exodus 24:18).

Forty, the number of years the Jewish people journeyed from Egypt to the Promised Land, the right amount of time for them to experience the faithfulness of God: " Remember how for these forty years the LORD, your God, has directed all your journeying in the wilderness... The clothing did not fall from you in tatters, nor did your feet swell these forty years, "says Moses in Deuteronomy at the end of the forty years of migration (Dt 8,2.4).

The years of peace enjoyed by Israel under the Judges are forty (Judg. 3,11.30), but, once this time ended, forgetfulness of the gifts of God begins and a return to sin.

The prophet Elijah takes forty days to reach Horeb, the mountain where he meets God (1 Kings 19.8).

Forty are the days during which the people of Nineveh do penance for the forgiveness of God (Gen 3.4).

Forty were also the years of the reign of Saul (Acts 13:21), David (2 Sam 5:4-5) and Solomon (1 Kings 11:41), the first three kings of Israel.

Even the biblical Psalms reflect on the meaning of the forty years, such as Psalm 95 for example, of which we heard a passage: "If you would listen to his voice today! " Oh, that today you would hear his voice: Do not harden your hearts as at Meribah, as on the day of Massah in the desert. There your ancestors tested me; they tried me though they had seen my works. Forty years I loathed that generation; I said: “This people’s heart goes astray; they do not know my ways"(vv. 7c-10).

In the New Testament Jesus, before beginning of his public life, retires to the desert for forty days without food or drink (Matt. 4.2): he nourishes himself on the Word of God, which he uses as a weapon to conquer the devil. The temptations of Jesus recall those the Jewish people faced in the desert, but could not conquer.

Forty are the days during which the risen Jesus instructs his disciples, before ascending to heaven and sending the Holy Spirit (Acts 1.3).

A spiritual context is described by this recurring number forty, one that remains current and valid, and the Church, precisely through the days of Lent, intends to maintain its enduring value and make us aware of its efficacy.

The Christian liturgy of Lent is intended to facilitate a journey of spiritual renewal in the light of this long biblical experience and especially to learn how to imitate Jesus, who in the forty days spent in the desert taught how to overcome temptation with the Word of God.

The forty years of Israel’s wandering in the desert present us with ambivalent attitudes and situations. On the one hand they are the first season of love between God and his people when He spoke to his heart, continuously indicating the path to follow to them. God had pitched his tent, so to speak, in the midst of Israel, He preceded it in a cloud or a pillar of fire, ensured its daily nourishment showering manna upon them, and bringing forth water from rock. Therefore, the years spent by Israel in the desert can be seen as the time of the special election of God and adherence to Him by the people. The time of first love.

On the other hand, the Bible also shows another image of Israel's wanderings in the desert: it is also the time of the greatest temptations and dangers, when Israel murmured against God and wanted to return to paganism and builds its own idols, as a need to worship a closer and more tangible God. It is also a time of rebellion against the great and invisible God.

This ambivalence, a period of special closeness to God, of first love and of temptation, the attempted return to paganism that characterized Israel in the desert, we find once again in a surprising way even in Jesus' earthly journey, of course without any compromise with sin.

After his baptism of repentance in the Jordan, in which he takes upon himself the destiny of the Servant of Yahweh God who renounces himself and lives for others and places himself among sinners, to take upon himself the sins of the world, Jesus went to stay in the desert for forty days in deep union with the Father, thus repeating the history of Israel and all these rhythms of forty days a year. This dynamic is a constant in the earthly life of Jesus, who always seeks moments of solitude to pray to his Father and remain in close and intimate communion with Him alone, and exclusive communion with Him, and then return among the people.

But in these times of "desert" and special encounter with the Father, Jesus is exposed to danger and is assailed by temptation and the seduction of devil, who offers him another messianic way, far from God's plan, because it passes through power, success, dominion and not through the total gift on the Cross. This is the alternative, messianism of power, of success, not messianism of gift and love of self.

This ambivalence also describes the condition of the pilgrim Church in the "desert" of the world and history.

In this "desert" we believers certainly have the opportunity to profoundly experience God, an experience that makes the spirit strong, confirms the faith, nourishes hope, animates charity; an experience that makes us partakers of Christ's victory over sin and death through the Sacrifice of love on the Cross.

But the "desert" is also the negative aspects of the reality that surrounds us: the arid, the poverty of words of life and of values, secularism and the materialist culture, which shut people within a horizon of mundane existence, robbing them of all reference to transcendence. And this is also the environment in which the sky above us is obscured, because covered by the clouds of egoism, misunderstanding and deception.

Despite this, even for the Church of today the time of the desert can be transformed into a time of grace, because we have the certainty that even from the hardest rock God can bring forth the living water that refreshes and restores.

Dear brothers and sisters, in these forty days that will lead us to Easter may we find new courage to accept with patience and with faith situations of difficulty, of affliction and trial, knowing that from the darkness the Lord will make a new day dawn.

And if we are faithful to Jesus and follow him on the way of the Cross, the bright world of God, the world of light, truth and joy will be gifted to us once more: it will be the new dawn created by God himself.

May you all have a good Lenten journey!

__________


English translation by Matthew Sherry, Ballwin, Missouri, U.S.A.

Wednesday, February 22, 2012

Penance Notes


This is an old sketch I drew, depicting Lent:
the hour glass, the sand, the cross, the
skull, the person praying, purple, etc.
Last post, I shared a calendar to help count the days of Lent. This post I hope to help you better understand the penance we do in Lent (and other times).


With the beginning of Lent, people often wonder: "What's all this penance stuff about?" and "What am I required to do for penance?" Here is a quick guide:



PENANCE is a sacrifice we perform, we unite to Christ’s sacrifice (Romans 8:17) & we offer to God--like St. Paul, who, in his “flesh, completed what is lacking in Christ’s afflictions” (Colossians 1:24). Penance is specifically observed in three ways: prayer, fasting & almsgiving. With all spiritual activity, we must always remember the ultimate goal: union with God. We offer these sacrifices to both express out love and esteem of God, and draw closer to Him.
  • When are we required to do Penance?
    • The days of penance are all of Lent and every Friday of the year.
    • If a solemnity occurs on a Friday, the penance is lifted.
  • What kind of penance should we perform during Lent?
    • The penance is designed to draw us closer to God, so we should try to perform a penance that will help us to stop a bad habit or increase our relationship with God in some other way.
    • You best know what you need to improve, so you impose your own penance for Lent.
  • Why do we do this?
    • We give up certain good things to help us recognize the greatest good thing, God Himself. Penance also manifests to God that we love Him above the things we are giving up. Penance also builds self-discipline and self-mastery, which we need to conquer sin and become holy.

For this post, I'd like to concentrate on fasting. Perhaps I'll make a future post on prayer and/or almsgiving.


FASTING means to refrain (partially or totally) from something. When the Church requires a day of fast, that means fasting from food.
  • What are the requirements of a day of fasting?
    • We can eat up to 1 full meal and 2 smaller meals (which don’t add up to a second full meal--no snacking, but liquids are fine). Basically, you should feel hungry for most of the day--that is your sacrifice.
  • Can I drink a smoothie or shake as a “liquid?”
    • Smoothies, shakes, etc. are generally not considered liquids in this context, so I would stay away from them.
  • When do we have to fast?
    • Roman Catholics are only required to fast on two days of the year: Ash Wednesday and Good Friday.
    • I don’t know the requirements for Eastern Rite Catholics.
  • Who has to fast?
    • Roman Catholics who are 18-58 (inclusively) have to fast, but it is commendable that others fast as well.
    • If you have a medical condition that requires you to eat, you are dispensed from fasting.
ABSTINENCE is a form of fasting; it means to totally refrain from something.
  • What are the requirements of a day of abstinence?
    • We don’t eat any carnis--meat from warm blooded animals [mammals and birds].
  • Why can we eat fish?
    • Fish are cold-blooded. They are not carnis. We may also eat reptiles and insects.
  • What about other animal products like eggs?
    • We may eat eggs, fat, gravy, broth, etc., but we may not eat the flesh of the warm-blooded animals.
  • When do we have to abstain?
    • We must abstain on Ash Wednesday, Good Friday, and all the Fridays in Lent.
    • We are also required to abstain on all the other Fridays of the year.
      • US Catholics may substitute some other equal penance instead of abstaining from carnis.
      • They still must perform some penance on Fridays outside of Lent.
  • Who is required to abstain?
    • Roman Catholics 14 and older have to abstain, but younger Catholics are encouraged to abstain as well.
DISPENSATIONS are the only way in which someone might be able to licitly break a prescribed penance. They usually come from the bishop, but the bishop may give that power to priests. Obviously, with exceptions as the above medical condition, there are some automatic dispensations. Also, again, a solemnity overrides a penance, so if March 25th (The Solemnity of The Annunciation) occurs on a Lenten Friday (like last year), the requirement to abstain from meat is lifted.
  • Is it serious if I break a penance?
    • The Apostolic Constitution on Penance (Chapter III:C:II) states: “Their substantial observance binds gravely.” This means that it is very serious if one purposefully disobeys these penances.
See also:

The 40 (+4) Days of Lent


Here's a calendar I created to help explain how to count the 40 (+4) days of Lent.


Sunday
Monday
Tuesday
Wednesday
Thursday
Friday
Saturday


Ordinary Time--lasts until midnight
*Ash Wednesday
[Fast & Abstinence]
Thursday After Ash Wednesday
Friday After Ash Wednesday [Abstinence]
Saturday After Ash Wednesday
**Sunday of the 1st Week of Lent
2
3
4
5
6
[Abstinence]
7
**Sunday of the 2nd Week of Lent
9
10
11
12
13
[Abstinence]
14
**Sunday of the 3rd Week of Lent
16
17
18
19
20
[Abstinence]
21
**Sunday of the 4th Week of Lent
23
24
25
26
27
[Abstinence]
28
**Sunday of the 5th Week of Lent
30
31
32
33
34
[Abstinence]
35
** Palm Sunday
37
Monday of Holy Week
38
Tuesday of Holy Week
39
Wednesday of Holy Week
***40
Good Friday
[Fast and Abstinence]
Easter Vigil
Holy Thursday
Easter Sunday









*The 40 is not an exact number. Some people call the first 4 days of Lent “Lent’s Doorstep.” Counting this way, they are a part of Lent, but are not counted when tallying 40 days. Lenten penance is still observed during these days. Counting this way, day #1 is Sunday of the 1st Week of Lent. Other people get to the number 40 by skipping the Sundays, but including Holy Thursday and Good Friday.

** Sundays are still considered part of Lent (the priest still wears purple), but since each person’s penance is self-directed (and we don’t usually fast on Sundays), many peopel give themselves a break from their penances on Sundays.

*** Lent ends when the Mass of the Last Supper begins on Holy Thursday night.

Later, I'm going to post something about the details of penance.

Saturday, February 18, 2012

Resurrection Order of Events



Lately, I've been teaching my sophomore and junior students about Jesus' Resurrection. Anyone who has studied the Resurrection has probably wondered a time or two exactly what happened when.

While preparing for some classes, I remembered being inspired by Msgr. Charles Pope's description of how the four gospel writer's accounts can initially seem conflicting, but after careful study, one can make sense of them. (See Making Sense of the Resurrection Accounts--Are There Discrepancies? and A Chronological Sequence of the Resurrection Events.) I thought it would be interesting to take all four gospel accounts and make a chronological chart, using the information provided.

Below is my attempt at creating such a chart. It includes the full text of the Resurrection accounts in the gospels. Each gospel is presented vertically in the order it appears in the Bible (no verses have been swapped, but some have been spaced apart). This is my effort to build an order of events that make sense, based on the biblical evidence.

If anyone has any suggestions to improve this chart, please feel free to leave comments.


I hope this helps my students and many of you to come to a clearer understanding of Our Lord's Resurrection--I know it has already helped me a bunch.




Matthew 28

Mark 16

Luke 24

John 20-21
Early Sunday morning, Mary Magdalene, Mary (the mother of James), Salome, Joanna, and at least one other woman (Lk 24:10) brought spices to the tomb to anoint Jesus’ body.
1
Now after the sabbath, toward the dawn of the first day of the week, Mary Mag'dalene and the other Mary went to see the sepulchre.
1
And when the sabbath was past, Mary Mag'dalene, and Mary the mother of James, and Salo'me, bought spices, so that they might go and anoint him.
1
But on the first day of the week, at early dawn, they went to the tomb, taking the spices which they had prepared.
1
Now on the first day of the week Mary Mag'dalene came to the tomb early, while it was still dark,



2
And very early on the first day of the week they went to the tomb when the sun had risen.




They wondered who would move the stone for them.


3
And they were saying to one another, "Who will roll away the stone for us from the door of the tomb?"




An angel came down and opened the tomb.
2
And behold, there was a great earthquake; for an angel of the Lord descended from heaven and came and rolled back the stone, and sat upon it.







3
His appearance was like lightning, and his raiment white as snow.






The guards fainted.
4
And for fear of him the guards trembled and became like dead men.






The women found the stone rolled back.


4
And looking up, they saw that the stone was rolled back; -- it was very large.
2
And they found the stone rolled away from the tomb,

 and saw that the stone had been taken away from the tomb.
The women found the tomb empty.




3
but when they went in they did not find the body.


The angel(s) explained that Jesus has risen.


5
And entering the tomb, they saw a young man sitting on the right side, dressed in a white robe; and they were amazed.
4
While they were perplexed about this, behold, two men stood by them in dazzling apparel;



5
But the angel said to the women, "Do not be afraid; for I know that you seek Jesus who was crucified.
6
And he said to them, "Do not be amazed; you seek Jesus of Nazareth, who was crucified. 
5
and as they were frightened and bowed their faces to the ground, the men said to them, "Why do you seek the living among the dead?



6
He is not here; for he has risen, as he said. Come, see the place where he lay.

He has risen, he is not here; see the place where they laid him.
6
Remember how he told you, while he was still in Galilee,



7
Then go quickly and tell his disciples that he has risen from the dead, and behold, he is going before you to Galilee; there you will see him. Behold, I have told you."
7
But go, tell his disciples and Peter that he is going before you to Galilee; there you will see him, as he told you."
7
that the Son of man must be delivered into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and on the third day rise."







8
And they remembered his words,


The women left.
8
So they departed quickly from the tomb with fear and great joy, and ran to tell his disciples.
8
And they went out and fled from the tomb; for trembling and astonishment had come upon them; and they said nothing to any one, for they were afraid.


2
So she ran, and went to Simon Peter and the other disciple, the one whom Jesus loved,
They told the disciples




9
and returning from the tomb they told all this to the eleven and to all the rest.

 and said to them, "They have taken the Lord out of the tomb, and we do not know where they have laid him."





10
Now it was Mary Mag'dalene and Jo-an'na and Mary the mother of James and the other women with them who told this to the apostles;


The disciples were skeptical.




11
but these words seemed to them an idle tale, and they did not believe them.


Peter & John went to investigate the tomb.




12
But Peter rose and ran to the tomb;
3
Peter then came out with the other disciple, and they went toward the tomb.







4
They both ran, but the other disciple outran Peter and reached the tomb first;
Peter & John found the tomb empty.






5
and stooping to look in, he saw the linen cloths lying there, but he did not go in.






stooping and looking in, he saw the linen cloths by themselves;
6
Then Simon Peter came, following him, and went into the tomb; he saw the linen cloths lying,







7
and the napkin, which had been on his head, not lying with the linen cloths but rolled up in a place by itself.







8
Then the other disciple, who reached the tomb first, also went in, and he saw and believed;







9
for as yet they did not know the scripture, that he must rise from the dead.
Peter & John left the tomb.





 and he went home wondering at what had happened.
10
Then the disciples went back to their homes.
The angels appeared to Mary Magdalene.






11
But Mary stood weeping outside the tomb, and as she wept she stooped to look into the tomb;







12
and she saw two angels in white, sitting where the body of Jesus had lain, one at the head and one at the feet.







13
They said to her, "Woman, why are you weeping?" She said to them, "Because they have taken away my Lord, and I do not know where they have laid him."
Jesus appeared to Mary Magdalene.


9
Now when he rose early on the first day of the week, he appeared first to Mary Magdalene, from whom he had cast out seven demons.


14
Saying this, she turned round and saw Jesus standing, but she did not know that it was Jesus.







15
Jesus said to her, "Woman, why are you weeping? Whom do you seek?" Supposing him to be the gardener, she said to him, "Sir, if you have carried him away, tell me where you have laid him, and I will take him away."







16
Jesus said to her, "Mary." She turned and said to him in Hebrew, "Rab-bo'ni!" (which means Teacher).







17
Jesus said to her, "Do not hold me, for I have not yet ascended to the Father; but go to my brethren and say to them, I am ascending to my Father and your Father, to my God and your God."
Mary Magdalene told the disciples that she had seen Jesus.


10
She went and told those who had been with him, as they mourned and wept.


18
Mary Mag'dalene went and said to the disciples, "I have seen the Lord"; and she told them that he had said these things to her.
They remained skeptical.


11
But when they heard that he was alive and had been seen by her, they would not believe it.




Jesus appeared to the women.
9
And behold, Jesus met them and said, "Hail!" And they came up and took hold of his feet and worshiped him.







10
Then Jesus said to them, "Do not be afraid; go and tell my brethren to go to Galilee, and there they will see me."






The guards awoke and relayed their story to the chief priests.
11
While they were going, behold, some of the guard went into the city and told the chief priests all that had taken place.






The Jewish authorities took counsel.
12
And when they had assembled with the elders and taken counsel, they gave a sum of money to the soldiers






The Jewish authorities paid off the guards to lie about what happened.
13
and said, "Tell people, `His disciples came by night and stole him away while we were asleep.'







14
And if this comes to the governor's ears, we will satisfy him and keep you out of trouble."







15
So they took the money and did as they were directed; and this story has been spread among the Jews to this day.







Easter Sunday Afternoon/Evening
Jesus appeared to the disciples on the road to Emmaus.


12
After this he appeared in another form to two of them, as they were walking into the country.
13
That very day two of them were going to a village named Emma'us, about seven miles from Jerusalem,







14
and talking with each other about all these things that had happened.







15
While they were talking and discussing together, Jesus himself drew near and went with them.







16
But their eyes were kept from recognizing him.







17
And he said to them, "What is this conversation which you are holding with each other as you walk?" And they stood still, looking sad.







18
Then one of them, named Cle'opas, answered him, "Are you the only visitor to Jerusalem who does not know the things that have happened there in these days?"







19
And he said to them, "What things?" And they said to him, "Concerning Jesus of Nazareth, who was a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the people,







20
and how our chief priests and rulers delivered him up to be condemned to death, and crucified him.







21
But we had hoped that he was the one to redeem Israel. Yes, and besides all this, it is now the third day since this happened.







22
Moreover, some women of our company amazed us. They were at the tomb early in the morning







23
and did not find his body; and they came back saying that they had even seen a vision of angels, who said that he was alive.







24
Some of those who were with us went to the tomb, and found it just as the women had said; but him they did not see."







25
And he said to them, "O foolish men, and slow of heart to believe all that the prophets have spoken!







26
Was it not necessary that the Christ should suffer these things and enter into his glory?"







27
And beginning with Moses and all the prophets, he interpreted to them in all the scriptures the things concerning himself.







28
So they drew near to the village to which they were going. He appeared to be going further,







29
but they constrained him, saying, "Stay with us, for it is toward evening and the day is now far spent." So he went in to stay with them.







30
When he was at table with them, he took the bread and blessed, and broke it, and gave it to them.







31
And their eyes were opened and they recognized him; and he vanished out of their sight.







32
They said to each other, "Did not our hearts burn within us while he talked to us on the road, while he opened to us the scriptures?"


The disciples on the road to Emmaus told the others.


13
And they went back and told the rest, 
33
And they rose that same hour and returned to Jerusalem; and they found the eleven gathered together and those who were with them,


The other disciples initially did not believe them.



but they did not believe them.




Eventually, they were convinced by Simon Peter, to whom the Lord had appeared (1 Cor 15:5).




34
who said, "The Lord has risen indeed, and has appeared to Simon!"


The account of the appearance on the road to Emmaus was accepted and retold.




35
Then they told what had happened on the road, and how he was known to them in the breaking of the bread.


As they were explaining this, Jesus appeared to all of the disciples who were gathered in the upper room.


14
Afterward he appeared to the eleven themselves as they sat at table; 
36
As they were saying this, Jesus himself stood among them.
19
On the evening of that day, the first day of the week, the doors being shut where the disciples were, for fear of the Jews, Jesus came and stood among them and said to them, "Peace be with you."





37
But they were startled and frightened, and supposed that they saw a spirit.


Jesus upbraided them for their unbelief.



and he upbraided them for their unbelief and hardness of heart, because they had not believed those who saw him after he had risen.
38
And he said to them, "Why are you troubled, and why do questionings rise in your hearts?


Jesus showed them His wounds to prove His identity.




39
See my hands and my feet, that it is I myself; handle me, and see; for a spirit has not flesh and bones as you see that I have."
20
When he had said this, he showed them his hands and his side. 





41
And while they still disbelieved for joy, and wondered, he said to them, "Have you anything here to eat?"







42
They gave him a piece of broiled fish,


He further proved His identity by eating fish.




43
and he took it and ate before them.










Then the disciples were glad when they saw the Lord.
Jesus explained salvation history to them.




44
Then he said to them, "These are my words which I spoke to you, while I was still with you, that everything written about me in the law of Moses and the prophets and the psalms must be fulfilled."


Jesus opened their minds to understand the scriptures.




45
Then he opened their minds to understand the scriptures,







46
and said to them, "Thus it is written, that the Christ should suffer and on the third day rise from the dead,







47
and that repentance and forgiveness of sins should be preached in his name to all nations, beginning from Jerusalem.


Jesus charged them with the duty to spread the news to everyone.


15
And he said to them, "Go into all the world and preach the gospel to the whole creation.
48
You are witnesses of these things.
21
Jesus said to them again, "Peace be with you. As the Father has sent me, even so I send you."



16
He who believes and is baptized will be saved; but he who does not believe will be condemned.







17
And these signs will accompany those who believe: in my name they will cast out demons; they will speak in new tongues;







18
they will pick up serpents, and if they drink any deadly thing, it will not hurt them; they will lay their hands on the sick, and they will recover."




Jesus gave them an initial installment of the Holy Spirit, and told them to wait in the city until they are clothed with power from on high.




49
And behold, I send the promise of my Father upon you; but stay in the city, until you are clothed with power from on high."
22
And when he had said this, he breathed on them, and said to them, "Receive the Holy Spirit.
Jesus gave them the authority to forgive sins.






23
If you forgive the sins of any, they are forgiven; if you retain the sins of any, they are retained."
Thomas wasn’t present.






24
Now Thomas, one of the twelve, called the Twin, was not with them when Jesus came.
He didn’t believe the others.






25
So the other disciples told him, "We have seen the Lord." But he said to them, "Unless I see in his hands the print of the nails, and place my finger in the mark of the nails, and place my hand in his side, I will not believe."

The Following Sunday
Jesus came back the next week and convinced Thomas.






26
Eight days later, his disciples were again in the house, and Thomas was with them. The doors were shut, but Jesus came and stood among them, and said, "Peace be with you."







27
Then he said to Thomas, "Put your finger here, and see my hands; and put out your hand, and place it in my side; do not be faithless, but believing."







28
Thomas answered him, "My Lord and my God!"







29
Jesus said to him, "Have you believed because you have seen me? Blessed are those who have not seen and yet believe."







30
Now Jesus did many other signs in the presence of the disciples, which are not written in this book;







31
but these are written that you may believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and that believing you may have life in his name.

Sometime Later
Jesus appeared to the disciples by the Sea of Tiberias (Sea of Galilee).






1
After this Jesus revealed himself again to the disciples by the Sea of Tibe'ri-as; and he revealed himself in this way.







2
Simon Peter, Thomas called the Twin, Nathan'a-el of Cana in Galilee, the sons of Zeb'edee, and two others of his disciples were together.







3
Simon Peter said to them, "I am going fishing." They said to him, "We will go with you." They went out and got into the boat; but that night they caught nothing.







4
Just as day was breaking, Jesus stood on the beach; yet the disciples did not know that it was Jesus.







5
Jesus said to them, "Children, have you any fish?" They answered him, "No."







6
He said to them, "Cast the net on the right side of the boat, and you will find some." So they cast it, and now they were not able to haul it in, for the quantity of fish.







7
That disciple whom Jesus loved said to Peter, "It is the Lord!" When Simon Peter heard that it was the Lord, he put on his clothes, for he was stripped for work, and sprang into the sea.







8
But the other disciples came in the boat, dragging the net full of fish, for they were not far from the land, but about a hundred yards off.







9
When they got out on land, they saw a charcoal fire there, with fish lying on it, and bread.







10
Jesus said to them, "Bring some of the fish that you have just caught."







11
So Simon Peter went aboard and hauled the net ashore, full of large fish, a hundred and fifty-three of them; and although there were so many, the net was not torn.







12
Jesus said to them, "Come and have breakfast." Now none of the disciples dared ask him, "Who are you?" They knew it was the Lord.







13
Jesus came and took the bread and gave it to them, and so with the fish.







14
This was now the third time that Jesus was revealed to the disciples after he was raised from the dead.
Jesus set Peter apart, and gave him the mission of feeding/tending the sheep/lambs.






15
When they had finished breakfast, Jesus said to Simon Peter, "Simon, son of John, do you love me more than these?" He said to him, "Yes, Lord; you know that I love you." He said to him, "Feed my lambs."







16
A second time he said to him, "Simon, son of John, do you love me?" He said to him, "Yes, Lord; you know that I love you." He said to him, "Tend my sheep."







17
He said to him the third time, "Simon, son of John, do you love me?" Peter was grieved because he said to him the third time, "Do you love me?" And he said to him, "Lord, you know everything; you know that I love you." Jesus said to him, "Feed my sheep.







18
Truly, truly, I say to you, when you were young, you girded yourself and walked where you would; but when you are old, you will stretch out your hands, and another will gird you and carry you where you do not wish to go."







19
(This he said to show by what death he was to glorify God.) And after this he said to him, "Follow me."







20
Peter turned and saw following them the disciple whom Jesus loved, who had lain close to his breast at the supper and had said, "Lord, who is it that is going to betray you?"







21
When Peter saw him, he said to Jesus, "Lord, what about this man?"







22
Jesus said to him, "If it is my will that he remain until I come, what is that to you? Follow me!"







23
The saying spread abroad among the brethren that this disciple was not to die; yet Jesus did not say to him that he was not to die, but, "If it is my will that he remain until I come, what is that to you?"







24
This is the disciple who is bearing witness to these things, and who has written these things; and we know that his testimony is true.







25
But there are also many other things which Jesus did; were every one of them to be written, I suppose that the world itself could not contain the books that would be written.

Sometime Other Time (Earlier or Later Than the Sea of Tiberias)
Jesus appeared to the disciples on a mountain in Galilee.
16
Now the eleven disciples went to Galilee, to the mountain to which Jesus had directed them.







17
And when they saw him they worshiped him; but some doubted.







18
And Jesus came and said to them, "All authority in heaven and on earth has been given to me.






Jesus gave the apostles the Great Commission.
19
Go therefore and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit,







20
teaching them to observe all that I have commanded you; and lo, I am with you always, to the close of the age."







40 Days After Easter (see Acts 1:3)
Jesus led His disciples to Bethany.




50
Then he led them out as far as Bethany, and lifting up his hands he blessed them.


Jesus Ascended into Heaven.


19
So then the Lord Jesus, after he had spoken to them, was taken up into heaven, and sat down at the right hand of God.
51
While he blessed them, he parted from them, and was carried up into heaven.


The disciples joyfully returned to Jerusalem.




52
And they returned to Jerusalem with great joy,



After the Ascension
The disciples commonly went to the Temple and praised God.




53
and were continually in the temple blessing God.


The disciples went out and preached.


20
And they went forth and preached everywhere, while the Lord worked with them and confirmed the message by the signs that attended it. Amen.






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